The Illuminati working to get the recently dethroned Hindu fascist BJP party back on its feet.

The creation of a one world government under the Illuminati UN will require not just horrendous wars in the Middle East but the rest of the world as well. In South east Asia, we may see a war with Pakistan, North Korea and China against India, Taiwan and south Korea. If it happens to be a nuclear war, the carnage will help pave way for a UN one world government.

Thus the Illuminati switched horses; abandoning the Congress party for the Hindu fascist Bharatiya janata Party (BJP). Though never in control of this party, this was the closest the Illuminati could get to exercising influence.

Alexander not so great

Alexander’s invasion of India is regarded as a huge Western victory against the disorganised East. But according to Marshal Gregory Zhukov, the largely Macedonian army suffered a fate worse than Napoleon in Russia.

Handing victory in India to Alexander is like describing Hitler as the conqueror of Russia because the Germans advanced up to Stalingrad.

Handing victory in India to Alexander is like describing Hitler as the conqueror of Russia because the Germans advanced up to Stalingrad.

In 326 BCE a formidable European army invaded India. Led by Alexander of Macedon it comprised battle hardened Macedonian soldiers, Greek cavalry, Balkan fighters and Persians allies. The total number of fighting men numbered more than 41,000.

Their most memorable clash was at the Battle of Hydaspes (Jhelum) against the army of Porus, the ruler of the Paurava kingdom of western Punjab. For more than 25 centuries it was believed that Alexander’s forces defeated the Indians. Greek and Roman accounts say the Indians were bested by the superior courage and stature of the Macedonians.

Macedonian Phalanx

Two millennia later, British historians latched on to the Alexander legend and described the campaign as the triumph of the organised West against the chaotic East. Although Alexander defeated only a few minor kingdoms in India’s northwest, in the view of many gleeful colonial writers the conquest of India was complete.

In reality much of the country was not even known to the Greeks. So handing victory to Alexander is like describing Hitler as the conqueror of Russia because the Germans advanced up to Stalingrad.


Zhukov’s view of Alexander

 In 1957, while addressing the cadets of the Indian Military Academy, Dehra Dun, Zhukov said Alexander’s actions after the Battle of Hydaspes suggest he had suffered an outright defeat. In Zhukov’s view, Alexander had suffered a greater setback in India than Napoleon in Russia. Napoleon had invaded Russia with 600,000 troops; of these only 30,000 survived, and of that number fewer than 1,000 were ever able to return to duty.

So if Zhukov was comparing Alexander’s campaign in India to Napoleon’s disaster, the Macedonians and Greeks must have retreated in an equally ignominious fashion. Zhukov would know a fleeing force if he saw one; he had chased the German Army over 2000 km from Stalingrad to Berlin.


No easy victories

Alexander’s troubles began as soon as he crossed the Indian border. He first faced resistance in the Kunar, Swat, Buner and Peshawar valleys where the Aspasioi and Assakenoi, known in Hindu texts as Ashvayana and Ashvakayana, stopped his advance. Although small by Indian standards they did not submit before Alexander’s killing machine.

Assakenoi Kamboja Archer

Assakenoi Kamboja Archer

The Assakenoi offered stubborn resistance from their mountain strongholds of Massaga, Bazira and Ora. The bloody fighting at Massaga was a prelude to what awaited Alexander in India. On the first day after bitter fighting the Macedonians and Greeks were forced to retreat with heavy losses. Alexander himself was seriously wounded in the ankle. On the fourth day the king of Massaga was killed but the city refused to surrender. The command of the army went to his old mother, which brought the entire women of the area into the fighting.

Realising that his plans to storm India were going down at its very gates, Alexander called for a truce. The Assakenoi agreed; the old queen was too trusting. That night when the citizens of Massaga had gone off to sleep after their celebrations, Alexander’s troops entered the city and massacred the entire citizenry. A similar slaughter then followed at Ora.

However, the fierce resistance put up by the Indian defenders had reduced the strength – and perhaps the confidence – of the until then all-conquering Macedonian army.


Faceoff at the river

In his entire conquering career Alexander’s hardest encounter was the Battle of Hydaspes, in which he faced king Porus of Paurava, a small but prosperous Indian kingdom on the river Jhelum. Porus is described in Greek accounts as standing seven feet tall.

King Porus fighting Alexander at the Battle of the Hydaspes River. An early 18th-century Russian lubok.

King Porus fighting Alexander at the Battle of the Hydaspes River. An early 18th-century Russian lubok.

In May 326 BCE, the European and Paurava armies faced each other across the banks of the Jhelum. By all accounts it was an awe-inspiring spectacle. The 34,000 Macedonian infantry and 7000 Greek cavalry were bolstered by the Indian king Ambhi, who was Porus’s rival. Ambhi was the ruler of the neighbouring kingdom of Takshashila(Taxila) and had offered to help Alexander on condition he would be given Porus’s kingdom.

Facing this tumultuous force led by the genius of Alexander was the Paurava army of 20,000 infantry, 2000 cavalry and 200 war elephants. Being a comparatively small kingdom by Indian standards, Paurava couldn’t have maintained such a large standing army, so it’s likely many of its defenders were hastily armed civilians. Also, the Greeks habitually exaggerated enemy strength.

Porus's elephant cavalry

Porus’s elephant cavalry

According to Greek sources, for several days the armies eyeballed each other across the river. The Greek-Macedonian force after having lost several thousand soldiers fighting the Indian mountain cities, were terrified at the prospect of fighting the fierce Paurava army. They had heard about the havoc Indian war elephants created among enemy ranks. The modern equivalent of battle tanks, the elephants also scared the wits out of the horses in the Greek cavalry.

Another terrible weapon in the Indians’ armoury was the two-meter bow. As tall as a man it could launch massive arrows able to transfix more than one enemy soldier.


Indians strike

The battle was savagely fought. As the volleys of heavy arrows from the long Indian bows scythed into the enemy’s formations, the first wave of war elephants waded into the Macedonian phalanx that was bristling with 17-feet long sarissas. Some of the animals got impaled in the process. Then a second wave of these mighty beasts rushed into the gap created by the first, either trampling the Macedonian soldiers or grabbing them by their trunks and presenting them up for the mounted Indian soldiers to cut or spear them. It was a nightmarish scenario for the invaders. As the terrified Macedonians pushed back, the Indian infantry charged into the gap.

The phalanx attacking the centre in the battle of the Hydaspes by Andre Castaigne (1898-1899)

The phalanx attacking the centre in the battle of the Hydaspes by Andre Castaigne (1898-1899)

In the first charge, by the Indians, Porus’s brother Amar killed Alexander’s favourite horse Bucephalus, forcing Alexander to dismount. This was a big deal. In battles outside India the elite Macedonian bodyguards had not allowed a single enemy soldier to deliver so much as a scratch on their king’s body, let alone slay his mount. Yet in this battle Indian troops not only broke into Alexander’s inner cordon, they also killed Nicaea, one of his leading commanders.

Burial Of Alexander's Favourite Horse Bucephalus

Burial Of Alexander’s Favourite Horse Bucephalus

According to the Roman historian Marcus Justinus, Porus challenged Alexander, who charged him on horseback. In the ensuing duel, Alexander fell off his horse and was at the mercy of the Indian king’s spear. But Porus dithered for a second and Alexander’s bodyguards rushed in to save their king.

Plutarch, the Greek historian and biographer, says there seems to have been nothing wrong with Indian morale. Despite initial setbacks, when their vaunted chariots got stuck in the mud, Porus’s army “rallied and kept resisting the Macedonians with unsurpassable bravery”.


Macedonians: Shaken, not stirred

Although the Greeks claim victory, the fanatical resistance put up by the Indian soldiers and ordinary people everywhere had shaken the nerves of Alexander’s army to the core. They refused to move further east. Nothing Alexander could say or do would spur his men to continue eastward. The army was close to mutiny.

Alexander's troops beg to return home from India in plate 3 of 11 by Antonio Tempesta of Florence, 1608

Alexander’s troops beg to return home from India in plate 3 of 11 by Antonio Tempesta of Florence, 1608

Says Plutarch: “The combat with Porus took the edge off the Macedonians’ courage, and stayed their further progress into India. For having found it hard enough to defeat an enemy who brought but 20,000 foot and 2000 horse into the field, they thought they had reason to oppose Alexander’s design of leading them on to pass the Ganges, on the further side of which was covered with multitudes of enemies.”

The Greek historian says after the battle with the Pauravas, the badly bruised and rattled Macedonians panicked when they received information further from Punjab lay places “where the inhabitants were skilled in agriculture, where there were elephants in yet greater abundance and men were superior in stature and courage”.

Indeed, on the other side of the Ganges was the mighty kingdom of Magadh, ruled by the wily Nandas, who commanded one of the most powerful and largest standing armies in the world. According to Plutarch, the courage of the Macedonians evaporated when they came to know the Nandas “were awaiting them with 200,000 infantry, 80,000 cavalry, 8000 war chariots and 6000 fighting elephants”. Undoubtedly, Alexander’s army would have walked into a slaughterhouse.

Hundreds of kilometres from the Indian heartland, Alexander ordered a retreat to great jubilation among his soldiers.


Partisans counterattack

The celebrations were premature. On its way south towards the sea, Alexander’s army was constantly harried by Indian partisans, republics and kingdoms.

In a campaign at Sangala in Punjab, the Indian attack was so ferocious it completely destroyed the Greek cavalry, forcing Alexander to attack on foot. In the next battle, against the Malavs of Multan, he was felled by an Indian warrior whose arrow pierced the Macedonian’s breastplate and ribs.

The death of Alexander the Great, after Karl von Piloty

The death of Alexander the Great, after Karl von Piloty

Says Military History magazine: “Although there was more fighting, Alexander’s wound put an end to any more personal exploits. Lung tissue never fully recovers, and the thick scarring in its place made every breath cut like a knife.”

Alexander never recovered and died in Babylon (modern Iraq) at the age of 33.


Alexander vs Porus: Beyond the fog of War

Marshal Gregory Zhukov, the legendary Russian commander, said the Macedonians had suffered a catastrophic defeat in India. In the final part of this analysis, fact and fiction are separated.

After defeating Persia in the year 334 BCE, Alexander of Macedon was irresistibly drawn towards the great Indian landmass. However, the Persians warned him the country was no easy target; that several famous conquerors had fallen at the gates of India.

The Persians told him how their greatest king, Cyrus, who had conquered much of the civilised world, had been killed in a battle with Indian soldiers exactly two centuries before Alexander.

And in an earlier antiquity, the Assyrian queen Semiramis, who had crossed the Indus with 400,000 highly trained troops, escaped with just 20 troops, the rest being slaughtered by the Indians.

Scythian (Indo Iranian) Mounted Archer

Scythian (Indo Iranian) Mounted Archer

In his book, Foreign Influence on Ancient India, Krishna Chandra Sagar says 150 years before Alexander, Indian archers and cavalry formed a significant component of the Persian army and played a key role in subduing Thebes in central Greece.

Alexander, however, knew no fear. More than anything else, he wanted to invade India. It would prove to be a strategic blunder.


Zhukov’s take

“Following Alexander’s failure to gain a position in India and the defeat of his successor Seleucus Nikator, relationships between the Indians and the Greeks and the Romans later, was mainly through trade and diplomacy. Also the Greeks and other ancient peoples did not see themselves as in any way superior, only different.”

Georgy Zhukov, the commander of the 39th Buzuluk Cavalry Regiment, 7th Cavalry Division Samara in 1923

Georgy Zhukov, the commander of the 39th Buzuluk Cavalry Regiment, 7th Cavalry Division Samara in 1923

This statement by Russia’s Marshal Gregory Zhukov on the Macedonian invasion of India in 326 BCE is significant because unlike the prejudiced colonial and Western historians, the Greeks and later Romans viewed Indians differently. For instance, Arrian writes in Alexander Anabasis that the Indians were the noblest among all Asians.

In fact, Arrian and other Greeks say the Indians were relentless in their attacks on the invaders. They say if the people of Punjab and Sindh were fierce, then in the eastern part of India “the men were superior in stature and courage”.

All this is glossed over by Western historians, in whose view the one victory over king Porus amounted to the “conquest of India”. But the Greeks made no such claim.


Battle of Hydaspes – Hardest ever

Greek contemporary writers describe the Battle of Hydaspes (Jhelum) as the hardest fought of all Alexander’s battles. Frank Lee Holt, a professor of ancient history at the University of Houston, writes in his book, Alexander the Great and the Mystery of the Elephant Medallions: “The only reference in Arrian’s history to a victory celebration by Alexander’s army was after the battle with Porus.”

Alexander’s army did not indulge in celebrations after the Battle of Gaugamela where they defeated 200,000 Persians. No wild festivities were announced after the Battle of Issus where they defeated a mixed force of Persian cavalry and Greek mercenaries.

The fact they celebrated after the Battle of Hydaspes suggests they considered themselves extremely lucky to survive after the clash with the Indian army, with its elephant corps.


If Porus lost, why reward him?

According to the Greeks, Alexander was apparently so impressed by Porus he gave back his kingdom plus the territories of king Ambhi of Takshashila(Taxila) who had fought alongside the Macedonians.

Surrender of Porus to the Emperor Alexander

Surrender of Porus to the Emperor Alexander

This is counterintuitive. Ambhi had become Alexander’s ally on the condition he would be given Porus’ kingdom.

So why reward the enemy, whose army had just mauled the Macedonians?

The only possible answer is at the Battle of Hydaspes, the Macedonians realised they were dealing with an enemy of uncommon valour. Sensing defeat they called for a truce, which Porus accepted. The Indian king struck a bargain – in return for Ambhi’s territories, which would secure his frontiers, Porus would assist the Macedonians in leaving India safely.

Alexander’s post-Hydaspes charitable behaviour, as per Greek accounts, is uncharacteristic and unlikely. For, in battles before and after, he massacred everyone in the cities he subdued.


Why pay off a vassal?

Before the battle, Alexander gave king Ambhi 1000 talents (25,000 kilos) of gold for fighting alongside the Macedonians. The only explanation is Ambhi was driving a hard bargain. He knew the rattled Macedonian army was seeking to quickly exit India. He thought he could use the Macedonians to remove his rival Porus. However, Porus’ decision to offer Alexander combat checkmated those plans.


Tired of fighting: Lame excuse

Greek sources say Alexander retreated from India because his soldiers were weary, homesick and close to mutiny. Imagine if German soldiers had told Hitler they were tired of fighting? They would have been summarily shot. In Alexander’s time, the punishment was crucifixion.

The Macedonian army had a system of rotation where large batches of veteran soldiers were released to return home (with sufficient gold and slaves). In their place, fresh troops eager poured in from Europe.

If they were weary of constant warring, it is inexplicable why these soldiers chose to fight their way through obstinately hostile Indian territories. The homesick soldiers would have preferred the garrisoned northwestern route they took while coming in. Why would a brilliant commander subject himself and his troops to further violence when all they wanted was a peaceful passage home?

Clearly, the Macedonians were in a mess and not thinking straight. Not the sign of a victorious army.


Need for glory

David J. Lonsdale, a lecturer in Strategic Studies at the University of Hull, writes: “Alexander’s invasion of India and Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812 both appear reckless and unnecessary from a strategic perspective. Therefore, perhaps they can both be explained by the sheer naked ambition of the two commanders.”

Napoleon's withdrawal from Russia, a painting by Adolph Northen

Napoleon’s withdrawal from Russia, a painting by Adolph Northen

Read here about How Napoleon and Paul I’s plotted to conquer India 

Alexander’s tragedy was he was in a Catch-22 situation. The Macedonians and Greeks welcomed the wealth from the conquered lands, but the man who ensured this flow was persona non grata.

In Greek eyes a Macedonian was hardly an equal. The Greeks hated Alexander for sacking their cities and enslaving their people. In his own country, he was an outsider for being half-Albanian, from his mother’s side. The common people suspected him of murdering his father.

So in order to retain the loyalty of his troops, Alexander had to wage constant war while also taking great personal risks in battle. For, he could not be seen as weak, let alone beaten.

A few years before the Indian campaign, a large part of the Macedonian army was massacred by the Scythians (Indian Shakas, the Buddha’s clansmen) at Polytimetus, present day Tajikistan. Alexander warned his surviving troops not to discuss the massacre with other soldiers.

Strabo, the Greek historian wrote: “Generally speaking, the men who have written on the affairs of India were a set of liars…Of this we became the more convinced whilst writing the history of Alexander.”

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Who owned East India Company ?

India was once a rich country, it was called ‘Sone Ki Chidiya‘ (Bird of Gold) in the ancient world and it was this reputation that attracted both travelers and invaders.

British Loot Great Game India

That was before the East India Company was granted the Charter to trade with India. Below is an account of what followed after that.


1600   –         The East India Company was granted the Charter to trade with India

EIC Charter 1600 Great Game India

1608   –         During this time ships belonging to the company arriving in India docked at Surat, which was established as a trade transit point.

Surat EIC Great Game IndiaOne of a pair depicting views of Surat, India, suggesting the healthy maritime trade of a busy Dutch East Indies factory port at the height of its success in the mid 17th century. Dutch merchants had established themselves with monopoly powers in the East Indies and trading stations on the mainland of India and Ceylon. This resulted in considerable hostility between the Dutch and English companies. The artist’s attempt to capture the admixture of familiar ships in the exotic surroundings of a Dutch settlement in India is particularly evocative. The fortified town of Surat can be seen with ships at anchor on the right and centre, and with smaller craft under sail on the left. National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London

In the next two years, the Company built its first factory in south India in the town of Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal.

Machilipatnam Bay of Bengal Great Game India

1750   –         The East India Company started cultivating Opium in Bengal and Bihar to finance its own private army of almost 2 lakh soldiers. The destruction of food crops in Bengal to make way for opium poppy cultivation for export reduced food availability and contributed to the famine resulting in deaths of 10 million people.

[ Read here for the complete Breakdown of Death Toll of Indian Holocaust caused during the British (Mis)Rule ]

Famine in India Natives Waiting for Relief in Bangalore

Famine in India Natives Waiting for Relief in Bangalore

1757   –         Opium traders after hatching a conspiracy with Siraj-ud-Daulah, Yar Lutuf Khan, Jagat Seths (Mahtab Chand and Swarup Chand), Omichund and Rai Durlabh took over India after The Battle of Plassey establishing company rule in South Asia.

Battle of Plassey Great Game India

* Jagat Seth, Umichand and Dwarkanath Tagore (Rabindranath Tagore’s grandfather) were known as the ‘Rothschild of Bengal’ (Dwarkanath Tagore, Drug Lord of India deserves one full post)

The guy on the left is Drug Lord Dwarkanath Tagore.

The guy on the left is Drug Lord Dwarkanath Tagore.

1780   –         It was Warren Hastings, the first Governor General of India’s , idea to first traffic drugs to China.

The History of the Trial of Warren Hastings

Trial of Warren Hastings

Trial of Warren Hastings

Through 1790          –         East India Company established a monopoly on Opium trade – and poppy growers in Indian could sell only to the East India Company. Thousands of Bengali , Bihari and Malva Indian farmers were forced to grow Opium.

Opium Empire Great Game India

At the same time, there was commercial stagnation and trade depression throughout Europe. The directors of the company attempted to avert bankruptcy by appealing to Parliament for financial help. This led to the passing of the Tea Act. The arrival of tax-exempt Company tea, undercutting the local merchants, triggered the Boston Tea Party in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, one of the major events leading up to the American Revolution.

Britain could no longer afford to buy tea from China in exchange for Silver. Opium was the free and easy option.

Trade Figures in Britain and US in 1700s

Boston Tea Party

Boston Tea Party

Economic History Britain Great Game India

By the 19th century – British Queen Victoria was the biggest drug trafficker. Even Queen Victoria used Opium ( Laudanum ), and records exist in the Royal Apothecary at Balmoral, as to how many times Opium was passed on to the royal palace. A lot of British noblemen were Opium eaters.

Opium Clippers Great Game India

Opium Records EIC Great Game India

Now coming to the real question…

But first we need to understand who owned this East India Company.

Also, everyone knows how much gold and gems were looted from India by the East India Company…

…but let’s pause for a moment and ask another question; Whatever happened to all that gold ?

Well, to this day it lies in the basement of the Bank of England, which indirectly is the basis for the establishment of almost all of the banking institutions of India and also many around the world.

Bank of England Great Game India

Imperial Foreign Investment Great game India

1708   –         Moses Montefiore and Nathan Mayer Rothschild loaned the British Treasury £3,200,000 (used to service the debt owed the privately operated Bank of England operated by Nathan Mayer Rothschild), in return for an exclusive grant of trading privileges with all countries of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, between Cape Horn and Cape Good Hope for the newly chartered joint stock corporation which Rothschild controlled – the British East India Company. They always operate through joint stock corporations in order to conceal their ownership and avoid personal responsibility.

Opium Traders Great Game India

Excrept from ’The Romance of the Rothschilds‘ by IGNATIUS BALLA (Page 79)

” When I settled in London,” Nathan Rothschild continued, ” the East India Company had eight hundred thousand pounds’ worth of gold to sell.

I went to the sale and bought it all. I knew the Duke of Wellington must have it; I had bought a great many of his bills at a discount.

The Government sent for me and said that they must have it. When they had got it, they did not know how to get it to Portugal.

I undertook all that, and sent it through France. It was the best business that I have ever done.”

Romance of Rothschilds Great Game India

It should be kept in mind that it was the House of Rothschild who summoned Adam Weishaupt to begin and organize the formation of the Illuminati. In simple words the Illuminati through it’s initiates would infiltrate all aspects and organisations of human society and get into the key positions to exercise enough influence so as to bring about the New World Order.

Order of the Illuminati Great Game India

1844     –            The Bank Charter Act was passed under the government of Robert Peel, which restricted the powers of British banks and gave exclusive note-issuing powers to the central Bank of England.

This meant that the Rothschilds were able to control more, because all the banks were now forced to use Bank of England notes, instead of their own.

Taxation of Human Happiness Great Game India

George Warde Norman was a Director of the Bank of England from 1821 to 1872, a key figure behind the Bank Charter Act of 1844. His vision was of increased human happiness through a wholesale reform of the revenue system founded upon direct taxation in the form of a comprehensive property tax.

1851/1853 – Later The Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China was founded in London by Scotsman James Wilson following the grant of a Royal Charter from Queen Victoria.

The bank’s business dealt specifically with large volume discounting and re-discounting of opium and cotton bills. Although opium cultivation gradually increased in China, opium imports still increased from 50,087 picul in 1863 to 82,61 picul in 1888.

Transactions in the opium trade generated substantial profits for Chartered bank.,_Australia_and_China

The Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China. The Calcutta Agency.

The Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China. The Calcutta Agency.

The same year (1853) The Mercantile Bank of India, London and China was established in Bombay by the Parsis who were the middle men (drug runners) (will be addressed in the next post) for the East India Company.,_London_and_China

Later, the Bank also became one of the principal foreign banknote issuing institutions in Shanghai; which we know today as the HSBC Bank.

Mercantile Bank of India – Madras

Mercantile Bank of India – Madras

Mercantile Bank of India – Bombay

Mercantile Bank of India – Bombay

Chartered Bank merged with the Standard Bank in 1969, and the combined bank became the Standard Chartered Bank.

That same year the Government of India nationalized Allahabad Bank.

Chartered Bank Buildings. Battery Road, Singapore

Chartered Bank Buildings. Battery Road, Singapore

State Bank of India

The SBI’s origins lay in Calcutta – the then capital of British India – when it was born as the Bank of Calcutta on June 2, 1806, mainly to fund General Wellesley’s wars against Tipu Sultan and the Marathas. It was renamed Bank of Bengal on January 2, 1809. Similar joint stock banks, the Bank of Bombay and Bank of Madras, came up in 1840 and 1843, respectively.

Imperial Bank Great Game India

In 1921, these banks with their 70 branches were merged to form the Imperial Bank of India. After Independence, several state-owned banks were merged with the Imperial Bank of India to form the State Bank of India in 1955. It is still known as State Bank of India.

1859     –            James Wilson (founder of The Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China) was sent to India to establish the tax structure, a new paper currency and remodel the finance system of India after the revolt of 1857.

He is known as the forefather of the Indian Tax structure.

Royal Commission Indian Currenct Great Game India


Reserve Bank of India (RBI) was conceptualized as per the guidelines, working style and outlook presented by Dr Ambedkar (as we’re told, however the genesis lay somewhere else which will be discussed in the next post – Genesis of Reserve Bank of India) in front of the Hilton Young Commission. When this commission came to India under the name of “Royal Commission on Indian Currency & Finance”, each and every member of this commission were holding Dr Ambedkar’s book named “The Problem of the Rupee – It’s origin and it’s solution.”

Gold Indian Currency Reform Great Game India

An excerpt from – The Problem of the Rupee – It’s origin and it’s solution by Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar.


“When the standard of value is standard metallic money the expansion cannot be very great, for the cost of production acts as a sufficient limiting influence. When a standard of value is a convertible paper money the provisions as to reserve act as a check on its expansion. But when a standard of value consists of a money the value of which is greater than its cost and is inconvertible, the currency must be said to be fraught with the fatal facility of indefinite expansion, which is another name for depreciation or rise of prices. It cannot, therefore, be said that the Bank Charter Act made no improvement on the Bank Restriction Act. indeed, it was a great improvement, for it substituted a currency less liable to expansion in place of a currency far more liable to expansion. Now the rupee is a debased coin,   inconvertible, and is unlimited legal tender. As such, it belongs to that order of money which has inherent in it the potentiality of indefinite expansion, i.e. depreciation and rise of prices. As a safeguard against this the better plan was no doubt the one originally designed, namely of putting a limit on the issue of rupees, so as to make the Indian currency system analogous to the English system governed by the Bank Charter Act of 1844.

If there is any force in the line of reasoning adopted above, then it is not easy to agree with the opinion entertained by the Chamberlain Commission of the Exchange Standard. Indeed, it raises a query whether for all that the Commission said there is not somewhere some weakness in the system likely to bring about its breakdown. It therefore becomes incumbent to examine the foundations of that standard from a fresh point of view.”

Did Dr. Ambedkar get the real implications of the potential dangers of the Fractional Reserve System and Fiat Currency that has engulfed the entire planet ???

The answer is open to speculation and further research.

Rothschild Newspaper Cartoon Great game India

Drug trafficking and the gold looted from India, Portugal, Brazil, China, Burma and other countries laid the foundations of the modern Monetary System.

But has it stopped yet?

Read here about the diabolical scheme Obama’s has in store for India for his second term – Unlocking the full potential of the US-India Relationship 2013

Read this recent report by Tahelka :

Globalisation is not a universal and secular creed…

It’s just a hangover from the Colonial Era.

In its day, the company occupied and manipulated the interstices of a truly global economy. Tea from China was bought with opium from India; Indian and later British textiles (made from cotton grown in India) purchased slaves in west Africa, who were sold in the Americas for gold and silver, which was invested in England, where the sugar harvested by the slaves ensured a booming market for the tea from China. The big winners sat in the City of London. The more numerous losers could be found in every corner of the globe.

– Mike Marqusee


“Wherever in the world any type of corruption starts,

it ends in London.”

Report by Shelley Kasli

Geo-Political Researcher

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Old Banking Family From Kazaria Controls All Banks Around The World

Old Banking Family From Kazaria Controls All Banks Around The World – Including The Fenderal Reserve Bank of America – Treasury Department – IRS – Worh $500,000,000,000,000.00 Trillion

The Rothschild secret wealth records were never audited and never accounted for …researchers estimate their wealth to close to 500 trillion dollars more than half the wealth of the entire world palaces wineries horse race resorts and mansions. The Rothschild bought Reuters in the 18th century. Reuters then bought the associated Press AP which selects and delivers the same news stories to the entire world day after day.

They have controlling interests in 3 major television networks until recently they owned and operated the England’s Royal Mint and continue to be the Gold agent for the bank of England which they also direct. They control the LBMA London Bullion Market association where 30 to 42 million ounces of gold worth over 11 trillion dollars are traded daily . The Rothschild earn millions weekly just on transaction fees alone , they also fix the world price of gold on a daily basis and profit from its ups and down , over the centuries the Rothschild have amassed trillions of dollars worth of gold bullion in their subterranean vaults

The Israel Supreme Court is of the most powerful courts in the world. They are the head of the court system in Israel and wield the most power. A ruling at the supreme court is binding in every other court (except for itself)
The court has ruled over some very important issues including the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, rights of Arab citizens of Israel, and discrimination between Jewish groups in Israel.

It is also worth noting that the supreme court can intervene in Israel Defense Forces military operations

One item stands out as a person listens to the International Bankers and reads their books. They believe money is what makes the world go round. If you have money, you can do anything. Money is “God”, and it is worshipped and served.

Even after these families accumulate more than can be spent, these devotees continue selling their souls for this false but powerful god. The great poet-philosopher Heinrich Heine (a Banker’s son) said, “Money is the god of our time, and Rothschild is his prophet.”

(6) Following the cue of the Rothschilds, Heinrich Heme, a Jew, signed his name by drawing a Seal of Solomon.

(7) Amsel Rothschild is reported to have said, “Give me control of the economics of a country; and I care not who makes her laws.

(8) Today his descendents meet twice daily in London to dictate to the world what the world price of gold will be. They also dictate what the “Federal Reserve System” will do with America’s finances.


According to eyewitnesses, who were prominent enough to visit one of the British Rothschild homes, the Rothschilds worship yet another god too, Satan. They set a place for him at their table.

(8a) The Rothschild’s have been Satanists for many generations. The Rothschild’s are an important part of the history of the Seal of Solomon (also known as hexagram, Magen David, six-pointed star, Star of David.)

The Seal of Solomon, the hexagram, was not considered a Jewish symbol before the Rothschild’s began using it.

(9) Throughout the Middle Ages the Seal of Solomon had been used by Arab Magicians, Cabalist Magicians, Druid witches and Satanists.

One of the few ancient uses of the symbol was on the floor of a 1,200 year old Moslem Mosque found where Tel Aviv is today.

(10) In the twelve century an Ashkenazic Jew Menahem ben Duji, who thought he was the Messiah, used the magical symbol. <

(11) Because the Rothschilds were Satanists they adopted this powerful magic symbol in 1822 for their coat- of-arms. The name they adopted for their family actually comes from the fact that in the 17th century Mayer Amschel Bauer began hanging out a red hexagram in front of their house to identify it.

Mayer Amschel then decided to take the name red-schield (Rothschild in German) after the red Seal of Solomon that they used. Alice Bailey in A Treatise On White Magic, p. 412, claims that the Hierarchy has a special group which she calls “the financial group”, controlling all that can be converted into energy, and constituting a dictatorship over all modes of intercourse, commerce and exchange.”

According to the Luciferian Alice Bailey, the “financial group” is the latest group directed by the Hierarchy. In 1836 Zevi Hirsch Kalischer approached Rothschild and proposed Rothschild buy all of Erez Israel. It took many years for the Rothschilds to finally create Israel. The Rothschilds have been a primary force behind the creation of Israel, and so it is appropriate that the nation carries their magical Seal of Solomon as the state logo.

The Ultra-orthodox Jews in Israel will not serve in the Israeli army because they know that Almighty God was not behind the creation of modern Israel, but rather the rich ungodly apostate Jews. They refuse to serve the ungodly. They are more wiser than men like Jerry Falwell who run around proclaiming Israel is God’s nation.

Men like Falwell are the type that this Author finds reference to repeatedly in Jewish documents that speak of their power within the Fundamentalists. God is ultimately in charge, he has allowed Hitler to come to power, Stalin to come to power, and the Rothschild’s to come to power.

In the same sense that God rules over and blessed Stalin’s Russia, he rules over America and Israel. To twist scriptures about God seating the rulers and then to apply them to bless one Satanic secular communist nation and not another is inconsistent and not correctly using the Word of Truth.

Some people object that the conspiracy of Power is labeled Jewish rather than Satanic by certain concerned citizens. This objection is valid– however, will these objectors then take the obvious next step and admit the nation of Israel. which the Rothschild’s created is Satanic and not Jewish? But then who knows precisely why people do what they do?

If you ask someone why he does something, he will give you one answer today, another tomorrow, and another the next day. Does he do what he does for a real reason, or a single motive? Perhaps to label the Power as only Satanic or only Jewish or only Masonic is to neglect the personal human dimension.

This personal human dimension is godless. Being godless it fills that void, by pretending its men are gods. This brings us right back to the Gnostic religions and Satan. Most Jewish people do not concern themselves with learning the occultic significance to their treasured Magen David (Star of David).

King David did not have anything to do with the hexagram, although his son Solomon did when he began worshipping Ashtoreth (star, also known as Astarte, Chiun, Kaiwan, Remphan, and Saturn).

(12) Solomon built altars to Star (Astarte, aka Ashtoreth).

The god Saturn is associated with the Star but both Saturn and Astarte have also been identified with a number of other names. Saturn is an important key to understanding the long heritage this conspiracy has back to antiquity. The city of Rome was originally known as Saturnia or City of Saturn. The Roman Catholic Church retains much of the Saturn worship in its ritual. Saturn also relates to Lucifer.

(13) In various occult dictionaries Saturn is associated with evil. Saturn was important to the religion of Mithra, and also the Druids.

CO-MASTERS OF THE WORLD –-connections to JWs, Mormons, and Judaism

It has been said all roads lead to Rome. For this book, it could be said all paths of investigation lead to the Rothschild.s. Charles T. Russell, in a 1891 letter to Baron (Lord) Rothschild, mailed from Palestine, outlined possible courses of action that could be taken to establish the Jews in Palestine.

Russell’s letters praised the Rothschild’s money, which established Jewish colonies in Palestine. Russell writes Rothschild. What is needed here, therefore, next to water and cleanliness, is a good government, which will protect the poor from the ravenous and the wealthy. Banking institutions on sound bases, and doing business honorably, are also greatly needed.

Russell continues, “May the God of Jacob direct you, my dear Sir, and all interested with you in the deliverance and prosperity of Israel, and blessed will they be who, to any extent, yield themselves as his servants in fulfilling his will as predicted.”

(14) When the Mormon Church needed financing in the late 19th century, they went to Kuhn, Loeb Co.

(15) To explain the Rothschild’s control of Kuhn, Loeb Co. here is some background information. The method that the House of Rothschild used to gain influence was the same that Royalty had used for centuries, marriage.

The Rothschild children, girls and boys, have had their spouses chosen on the basis of alliances that would benefit the House of Rothschild, but since consolidating world power they generally have married cousins these last two centuries.

(16) Jacob Schiff grew up in the house that the Rothschild’s had at 148 Judengasse, Frankfurt. Jacob Schiff came to the United States with Rothschild capital and took over control of a small jewish banking concern founded by two Cincinnati dry goods merchants Abraham Kuhn and Solomon Loeb. He even married Soloman’s daughter. In 1885, Loeb retired, and Schiff ran the Kuhn, Loeb Co. for the Rothschilds until 1920 when he died.

17) During Russell’s and Brigham Young’s day, Lord Rothschild was considered the “lay leader of world Jewry.

(18) Edmund Rothschild was President of the Jewish Colonization Assoc.

(19) It was a major Zionist group. Amselm Rothschild indicated that his grandfather Amschel Mayer Rothschild had insisted in Clause 15 of his will to his children, “may they and their descendants remain constantly true to their ancestral Jewish faith.”

(20) However, the will has been secret and there is no way of knowing what it says. The Rothschild’s have not remained true to the Orthodox faith. If this was actually what Clause 15 said then something is amiss. The Jewish world has showered the Rothschild’s with praises, “The Rothschild’s govern a Christian world. Not a cabinet moves without their advice.

They stretch their hand, with equal ease, from Petersburg to Vienna, from Vienna to Paris, from Paris to London, from London to Washington. Baron Rothschild, the head of the house, is the true king of Judah, the prince of the captivity, the Messiah so long looked for by this extraordinary people.

The lion of the tribe of Judah, Baron Rothschild, possesses more real force than David–more wisdom than Solomon.”

(21) The Prieure de Sion-the Elders of Sion.

(22) It also relates to the Rothschild’s who are reported to serve on a jewish council of Elders of Sion.

(23) The Rothschild’s have “helped” the Jewish people the Rothschild’s own way. For those who admire stingyness, the Rothschild’s will be greatly looked up to. For instance, the extent of James Rothschild’s charity in France to poor Jews was 5 francs (the equivalent of $1). Their dynasty has destroyed honest Jews along with Christians. Today, few dare criticize the Rothschild’s.

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The Rothschilds had played a major role in the Bavarian Illuminati.

(25) It is known that a least one of the sons of Amsel was a member. As the reader remembers, Amsel placed his sons in the major European capitals, where they each set up the principal banking houses. By their own secret intelligence service and their own news network they could out manouver any European government.

(26) The large amounts of voluminous correspondence by Rothschild couriers attracted attention.

(27) No one ever stopped their personal intelligence and mail services. After the Bavarian illuminati were exposed, the central occult power over the European secret societies shifted to Carbonarism a.k.a. the Alta Vendita.

(28) The Alta Vendita was led by another powerful Rothschild, Karl Rothschild, son of Amschel.

(29) In 1818, Karl participated in a secret document that was sent out to the headquarters of Masonry from the Alta Vendita. The Masons were quite distressed when a copy of this was lost, and offered rewards to anyone who could return the lost copy. It was originally written in Italian. Its title translates, Permanent Instructions, or Practical Code of Rules; Guide for the Heads of the Highest Grades of Masonry.

(30) The Masonic reference book 10,000 Famous Freemasons, Vol. 4, p.74, indicates two other sons of Amschel were Masons, James Meyer Rothschild, and his brother Nathan Meyer Rothschild. James Rothschild in Paris was a 33 degree Scottish Rite Mason, and his brother Nathan in London was a member of the Lodge of Emulation. And Jewish Freemason Katz indicates Solomon Meir Rothschild, a third member of the five brothers, was initiated into Freemasonry on June 14, 1809.(

(31) The Rothschild’s became powerful within Freemasonry. We find the Saint-Simonians, the occult religious millenialist forerunners of communism, praising Baron de Rothschild in their magazine Le Globe, “There is no one today who better represents the triumph of equality and work in the nineteenth century than M. le Baron de Rothschild.

>Was this Jew born a millionaire? No, he was born poor, and if only you knew what genius, patience, and hard work were required to construct that European edifice called the House of Rothschild, you would admire rather than insult it.” Lionel de Rothschild (the de was added by the French Rothschild’s’) was involved with the first communist Internationale. The Mason Mazzini who helped start communism praised Rothschild.

“Rothschild could be King of France if he so desired.

(32)Adoiphe Cremieux, was a french Jewish Mason (see chap. 1.4 for his credentials). The Rothschild’s gave at least £ i ,000 to Cremieux to go to Damascus with Salomon Munk, and Sir Moses Montefiore to win the release of Jews imprisoned there, and to convince the Turkish Sultan to declare the charges of ritual murder false.

(33) According to the three Jewish authors of Dope, Inc. the B’nai B’rith was a spin-off of the Order of Zion and was organized as a covert intelligence front” for the House of Rothschild. It is highly probable that the B’nai B’rith was used as a Rothschild intelligence cover.

The Rothschild’s are prominent in the Bilderbergers too. The Rothschild’s were closely related to the Council of Foreign Relations (CFR). Although many people today would not view the CFR as a secret society it was originally set up as part of a secret society and it was kept secret for many years, in spite of its awesome power.

Carroll Quigley, professor of International Relations at the Jesuit Georgetown University, exposed the Round Table Group with his book Tragedy and Hope.

(34) The Rothschilds supported Rhodes to form De Beers.

(35) Later, Rhodes made seven wills which established a secret society modeled after the Jesuits and Masons to help bring in a One-World- Government centered upon Britain, and the Rhodes Scholarships.

(36) The inner group was established in Mar. 1891 and consisted of Rhodes, Stead, Lord Esher (Brett), and 33* Mason Alfred Milner.(33bb) A secondary circle of “potential members of the Circle of Initiates” consisted of the Jew Lord Balfour, Sir Harry Johnson, Lord Rothschild, Lord Grey and others.

Initially, Lord Rothschild was part of the inner group of Rhode’s secret society, but was replaced by his son-in-law Lord Rosebury who wasn’t as conspicuous;

(37) The Fabian Socialists dominated the staff at Oxford when the Rhodes Scholars began arriving. These scholars then received indoctrination and preparation to become part of an international socialist New World Order.

(38) The Round Table Group developed from the inner executive circle of Rhode’s secret society. The outer circle was established after the start of the 20th century. The Round Table Group was extended after WWI by organizing a front organization the Royal Institute of International Affairs. <

The Council of Foreign Relations was the American part of this front. The inner circle continues to direct the outer circle and its two front organizations RIIA and CFR. The CER in turn set up a number of fronts including the Institute of Pacific Relations (IPR).

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British Raj is in reality the Rothschild Raj

What most Indians think of as British Raj is in reality the Rothschild Raj. The British empire was the Rothschild empire.rothschild-coat-of-arms

It has been British policy since the Revolt of 1857 to keep Hindus and Muslims divided. The Rothschild plan for India was to keep it within the British empire utmost like Australia or Canada. For this purpose, they created the Indian National Congress (INC) with the help of Allan Octavian Hume, a member of the occultist Rothschild front Theosophical Society. INC was expected to keep India’s as a British dominian with a nominal democracy formed by a small subset of the population – those who pay direct taxes.

When INC began to go out of their control, they promoted the Muslim League and the “Untouchables” league led by Ambedkar. They also created Muslim League’s anti-thesis, the Hindu Mahasabha. Hindu Mahasabha gave birth to RSS, VHP, and BJP. The Muslim League and Hindu Mahasabha together killed almost a million people in the riots that followed the partition of India – to imply the Indians were incapable of managing their own destiny and needed British rule to live peacefully.

Even after India became independent, it was a Rothschild stooge who became Prime Minister – Jawarharlal Nehru, a freemason. Other contenders were eliminated. Gandhi, even though he was refused to take up office, was killed by an ex-RSS man Godse.

For Jammu and Kashmir, Nehru and Mountbatten enacted a drama, which allowed Pakistan Army to invade and occupy a part of Jammu and Kashmir – at a time when both Indian and Pakistani armies were led by British officers. Instead of driving out Pakistani invaders, Nehru forged a Instrument of Accession that gave Pakistan a leg inside the door of Kashmir. To make matters worse, Nehru being the great “internationalist” that he referred Kashmir to the United Nations where Britain promptly sided with Pakistan. It is because of Nehru’s perfidy that prevented India and Pakistan from having friendly relations. He also ensured that Pakistan’s Army became sole arbiter of the fate of that country. Jinnah probably got bumped off by the Rotschilds, for his usefulness had run out. According to one account, Jinnah told a visiting friend and Indian doctor that he had seriously begun to have second thoughts about Pakistan.

Nehru’s perfidy was not limited to Pakistan. In China, Rothschilds betrayed their stooge Chiang Kai-Shek and allied with a more nutty variety named Mao Zedong, who lead the Communist party of China. Nehru preferred to the look the other way when China invaded Tibet. This brough Chinese troops right next door. For several years, he ignored Indian military’s warnings about the Chinese build-up in Tibet. Instead, he preferred the “Everything’s fine. China is our friend.” view put out by his friends and relatives in the defence ministry. When China invaded, he put numerous limitations on the army, such as not allowing the use of military aircraft. Eventually, he meekly wrote a letter to the leader of the netherworld John F Kennedy.

With the Americans came famine – no doubt greatly aided by Nehru’s price controls. (I don’t think there was ever an Indian so screwed up.) India was forced to use unused ingredients from American ammunition factories as fertilizer. This “Green Revolution” changed the way how Indian farmers. They became dependent on fertilizers and pesticides. They also failed to preserve the vast variety of native Indian seeds. Instead, they switched to a greatly limited set of hybrid seeds supplied by FAO and UN organizations. These seeds required a huge amount of petrochemical fertilizers – supplied by you-guessed-it Rothschild-controlled oil companies.

After almost all the big stalwarts of the freedom movement had died, Nehru inserted the word “socialist” into the preamble of the Indian constitution. He usurped the Gandhi name and gave it to his daughter. Generations of Nehru family have become Prime Ministers or so close to the post because of the Gandhi name. They would not have had the same success if their last name was Nehru. In fact, many illiterate Indians think they belong to the Gandhi family.


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The Paleolithic Age is a prehistoric period of human history

The Paleolithic Age is the 1st principal period of the 3-age Stone-BronzeIron system for classifying ancient societies and prehistoric stages of progress (after the Ice Age). This period in India is divided into: [1]

  1. Paleolithic (Old Stone Age): 500000 BC – 100000 BC;
  2. Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age): 10000 BC – 4000 BC;
  3. Neolithic (New Stone Age): 6000 BC – 1000 BC;
  4. Copper Age: 4000 BC – 1000 BC.


The term “Paleolithic” literally means “Old Stone Age”. It is the longest age in the history of human civilization and in view of this, historians have subdivided this period into 3 phases, on the basis of the kind of the tools used, the techniques used in giving them shape that give an invaluable insight into the advancement of the people, as well as the changes in the climate and the environment:

  1. Lower Paleolithic, spanning from 500,000 years ago until 100,000 years ago: Covering the greater part of the Ice Age, this phase is characterized by the use of the hand-axe, cleavers, and choppers;
  2. Middle Paleolithic, spanning from 100,000 years ago to 40,000 years ago: The principal tools used during this phase are a variety of blades, points, and scrappers made of flakes;
  3. Upper Paleolithic, spanning from 40,000 years ago to 10,000 years ago: This phase marks the appearance of:
    • modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens);
    • new flint industries;
    • bone tools (including needles, harpoons, and blades) and stone tools with a chisel-like head; and
    • figurines and other artifacts reflecting art and rituals.

The climate during the Paleolithic era comprised a set of glacial and interglacial periods in which the climate fluctuated periodically between warm and cool temperatures.

2.  The hunter-gatherer culture: The Paleolithic Age was basically a hunting and food-gathering culture, with humans forming small bands to hunt for large animals, using stone axes. The tools used were usually made of quartzite (a type of hard rock) and as such, Paleolithic man in India is therefore also called “Quartzite Man”. Agriculture was not known yet, and the people led a nomadic lifestyle, moving from place to place, taking refuge in caves and hollow tree trunks. By the end of the Paleolithic Age, humans had begun to produce the earliest works of art and engage in religious and spiritual behavior, such as burial and ritual.

Palaeolithic research in India got a boost only with the coming of Yale Cambridge Expedition in 1935, led by Deterra and Patterson.[2] As expected, most of these ancient sites were found in the vicinity of rivers where water was readily available. Some of the famous sites of the Paleolithic Age in India are: [3]

3.  Cave paintings: Rock paintings and carvings have been found in [[Bhimbetka rock shelters, as well as in some other places. The animals depicted in these paintings are mostly bisons, elephants, tigers, rhinoceros, and boars, reflecting the big-game hunting culture. The Upper Paleolithic art is characterized by red and green colors.


Pre – historic Times

This Historical Atlas aims at presenting cartographically the entire range of the human history of south India from pre-historic times to 1600 CE. South India is recognized as a complex region with diverse physical, social and cultural components. For convenience’s sake the area covered by the four present-day linguistically defined states of Andhra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala may be taken as the macro-region of south India. But in tracing the human development the boundaries cannot be treated as rigid and fixed once for all. Moreover due to the vastness of the study area, the historical characteristics of the region are bound to vary from area to area at sub-regional level. Considered at the macro-regional level, the history of south India is broadly divided into eight periods on the basis of some salient technological, social and cultural features. Though there would be much overlapping among the different contiguous periods both at the macro-regional level and sub-regional levels, this periodization is necessary to understand the cumulative historical changes.

Old Stone Age 500,000-3000 BCE

The first of the eight periods relates to the Old Stone Age, which occupies a long duration of human existence on the earth. Within the Indian sub-continent it is traced from about 500,000 years to 3000 BCE. Geographically this period coincides with the middle and late Pleistocene periods and was marked with much climatic changes with alternating arid, semi-arid and moist phases. Given the slow development of man, his mastery of the nature was very slow over this long duration. For most part of the lower Palaeolithic stage, man lived close to river valleys with sparse forest cover or in grassland environments. The population density was very low and actually so far only two localities of this lower Palaeolithic culture are so far known in south India namely Upper Krishna valley in Karnataka and Attirampakkam valley about 50 kilometres to the northwest of Chennai (Madras) in Tamil Nadu, though some of the tools are met with now and then in a few other localities. The man at this stage was mostly a hunter using large-sized stone tools such as handaxes and choppers.

An analogy with African sites shows that this man is supposed to belong to the species of Homo Erectus. The real ancestor of modern man (Homo Sapiens Sapiens) who appeared around 50,000 years before present was a more developed species who could fabricate thinner flake tools and blade-like tools using a variety of stones. From about 10,000 years before present, still smaller tools called Microlithic tools were made. These small tools could be used as compound tools for various purposes. During this period man inhabited varying environments in open terrains, near foothills, and on seacoasts. Besides, he also started to live in semi-permanent dwellings in natural rock-shelters, where we find the display of his aesthetic instincts in the form of rock painting and etchings. At this stage he was not only a hunter-gatherer, he also took to fishing. Also he cared for his dead by giving them some ritual burials. There is also evidence for some incipient religious cults in the communities.

New Stone Age 3000-1000 BCE


This period marks an important technological development when much care was taken to make the stone tools in finer shapes by grinding and polishing. For the first time some storage vessels were made using clay. Also first experiments were made to cultivate grains on a small scale. Cattle and sheep were domesticated. That is, the Neolithic man had more than one avenue of getting his subsistence, hunting being just one among the many. More areas were begun to be occupied by man in several parts of Indian sub-continent but in different times, starting at the earliest in 7000 BCE in Baluchistan (Pakistan) and from 3000 BCE onwards elsewhere. In the south the Neolithic period had its advent around 2500 BCE. The Neolithic stage man lived mostly on small flat hills or on the foothills in small, more or less permanent settlements but for periodical transhumance for grazing purposes.


He gave his dead kin proper burials within urns or pits. His aesthetic sense can be appreciated in the form of rock-art found near or within the rock-shelters. In certain localities Neolithic man was also using limited copper for making certain tools of weapons. Hence this age gets the name Neolithic-Chalcolithic age too.

Megalithic Age 1000-300 BCE


This is the time when man started using iron, a better metal harder than copper, for making tools and weapons. In India, there is evidence in several localities to say that this age started from about 1100 BCE or a little earlier. Unlike in north India, the Iron Age culture in peninsular India is marked by Megalithic burial sites, which are found in several hundreds of places. For the first time most of south India is studded with Iron Age sites; in other words, most of the macro-region, from Nagpur in the north to Kanyakumari in the extreme south was populated by the Iron Age folk during the course of the first millennium BCE. Still there is much to be learnt regarding the chronology of these sites. On the basis of some excavations, and on the basis of the typology of the burial monuments, it has been suggested that there was a gradual spread of the Iron Age sites from the north to the south. The southern sites are therefore considered chronologically later than the northern sites.

The megalithic burials are so called due to their construction using large-sized stones, natural boulders or quarried slabs. But there is quite a variety among these burials. Though some of them do not have any associated stone structures, they are also considered as ’Megalithic’ on the basis of their other common cultural material like iron tools and weapons, pottery, etc. The most accepted classification of burials on the basis of their structure is as follows (Allchin 1996: pp. 331-33):

(A) Large urns, often pyriform, containing collected bones previously excarnated, and buried in a small pit, marked in some cases by a stone circle or small capstone or both. The pits, and sometimes the urn itself, often contain grave goods. Urn burials of this sort are common on the eastern coastal plains, and have a wide distribution elsewhere.

(B) Legged urns and legged pottery sarcophagi, the latter sometimes with an animal’s head, are less frequently found but have a fairly wide distribution. Sarcophagi without legs also occur.

(C) Pit circle graves, of which several examples were excavated at Brahmagiri, in which the body had evidently been placed on a wooden bier in a large open pit and exposed, perhaps to allow for excarnation. Grave goods are found in the pits, and a stone circle is erected round the circumference.

(D) Cist graves. Of these there is a great variety. The stone cists are usually of granite slabs, sometimes with portholes, variously oriented. The cists may be deeply buried in pits, partly buried, or erected upon the bare rock surface. Some cists are compartmented and have several separate chambers: in some instances a separate slab resting on four stones suggests a bed. The capstones may be single or multiple. Many different arrangements of burial — both single and multiple — are found, and grave goods were placed both within and around the cists. In some cases a ramp below ground level leads down to the porthole entrance and a slab door has covered this. The cist is usually marked by a stone circle or on occasion by a double or treble circle.

(E) In the Malabar coastal laterites small rock-cut chambers are found sometimes approached by an entrance from above and covered with a capstone. Some of these chambers have vaulted roofs.

(F) One further monument associated with the graves and belonging to the Iron Age is the stone alignment comprising carefully oriented rows of standing stones set in a square of diagonal plan. The standing stones are generally from 1. 5 to 2. 4 metres in height but occasionally examples of over six metres are recorded. Small alignments have been reported with as few as three rows of three stones, four rows of four, five rows of five, etc, but large diagonal alignments with sometimes many hundreds of standing stones are reported from Gulbarga district. These monuments are so far mainly distributed in the Central Deccan, in the districts to the south of Hyderabad.

An intriguing aspect of the megalithic burials is the very rare occurrence of associated habitations and even in the case of the available habitations; the evidence suggests their existence for a short duration only. Perhaps the authors of these burials were mostly pastoralists leading a semi-nomadic life. It is therefore from the grave goods found in the various burials that most of the information relating to the society and culture of this period is obtained. The magnitude of the burials would suggest that fairly big communities were living together, which may be characterized as clans. There was a sort of ranking, the clan or lineage chiefs occupying the superior positions. Warfare was quite prevalent in the society as revealed by the large number of weapons in the grave goods. Iron implements would indicate that agriculture was also an important component of the livelihood of the megalithic people, besides of course the pastoral activities.

Iron technology was highly developed and shows a high degree of uniformity through the length and breadth of peninsular India. Both iron tools and weapons show quite a variety. The tools that could be used for a variety of agricultural and other purposes included axes with crossed iron bands for hafting, varieties of flanged spade, hoes, pick axes, sickles or bill-hooks, wedges and crowbars, knives, chisels, and adzes. The weapons were daggers, swords, arrowheads, spearheads, and tridents. Horse furniture like snaffle bits and stirrup was also conspicuous in certain burials. The widespread nature of most of these objects and their uniformity over a wide area would suggest that there had developed a good trade network connecting various parts of south India and even outside.


Gold, silver, copper, and bronze were used for making jewels and objects of art, which were things of prestige. Beads made of carnelian were ubiquitous prestige objects found among the grave goods. Megalithic period paintings and etchings are met with in rock shelters close to burial sites, but it is difficult to differentiate this art from the Neolithic art. One peculiar feature of communication in Megalithic sites is a large number of graffiti marks made on pottery. A striking thing about the graffiti is that several sites separated by long distances have yielded some almost identical graffiti. And some of the graffiti seem to have survived from earlier cultures, right from the Indus valley civilization of the third and second millennia BCE.

Ancient History I 300 BCE – 200 CE


This marks the first or earliest historical phase of south India including Tamizakam or Tamil land comprising present Tamil Nadu and Kerala states, as writing in the proper sense starts appearing from early 3rd century BCE, though written documents is not available in sufficient quantity to help in the reconstruction of history. But there is a very big collection of near contemporary poems — generally bardic in nature — which throws a lot of light on the history of this period.

There were three or four monarchical states, though not of big proportion, headed by kings called ventar and several tribal chieftaincies, headed by the chiefs called by the general denomination vel. Still lower at the local level there were clan chiefs called kizar or mannar. During the third century BCE, the Deccan, i.e., the northern part of peninsular India (up to 14º North) was part of the Mauryan kingdom whose political centre was in Pataliputra in north India, and from the middle of the first century BCE to second century CE the same area was ruled by the Satavahana dynasty. The Tamil area had all along an independent political set-up. The kings and chiefs were always fighting with each other mostly for getting the cattle and other wealth of the enemy. It was a typical heroic age where the brave men were extolled in life and venerated after their death. The royal courts were mostly places of social gathering rather than places of dispensation of authority; they were centres for distribution of resources. Gradually the rulers came under the spell of north Indian ideology of kshatriya varna (ruling class), which encouraged performance of Vedic sacrifices to enhance the status of the ruler and equated him with the heroes of the Itihasa-Purana tradition.


The society was still primitive with several tribes, most of which occupied specific localities and some of them being still nomadic. At lower level, clans (kudi) occupied a village (ur) or cluster of villages. Though patriarchy was the prevailing norm, matriarchal elements were also there. According to the different physiological and ecological situations the composition of the society showed variations.

Uneven development was the characteristic feature of the economy, in keeping with the varied physio-ecological regions. Hunting and swidden cultivation were prominent in hilly zone (kurinji according to poetic convention), pastoral activities in semi-dry, forest tracts (mullai), fishing and maritime trade in coastal zone (neytal), and developed plough agriculture and variety of crafts in riverine tracts (marutam). Agriculture was encouraged by digging irrigation tanks and canals. The dwellings ranged from very humble huts of wattle and daub in hilly tracts to tall mansions in the big settlements of the wet-rice zone. There was a well-developed trade network both internal and external. Maritime trade in pepper, spices, and semi-precious stones with the Roman world was highly flourishing, through several coastal port-towns like Muchiri on the west coast and Kavirippattinam, Arikamedu, etc. on the east coast.


The society had become literate with the introduction of writing, but bardic poetry was the predominant medium of communication, nurtured by the traditional bards (panar) and the scholarly poets (pulavar). Viraliyar, the female counterparts of the panar were artistes who entertained the audience with dance and music. Varieties of musical instruments were in use.

Cotton and silk were used for dresses. Rich people patronized high quality cotton cloth (kalingam). Ornaments made of shell, conch, and semi-precious stones were popular, and of course gold things were the most coveted but precious things.

Primitive cults and practices dominated the religious life of the people. Animistic worship was the most popular practice, so too was the worship of ancestors and heroes. Several of the Megalithic burial practices continued in this period also. New religious ideas from the north were slowly percolating into south India. Jainism and Buddhism, the two great ethical, non-orthodox religions from the Gangetic valley were ardently received along with the orthodox Vedic religion with all its fire rituals. Still those new religions could attract only the attention of the higher stratum of the society.

Ancient History II 200-500 CE


Several monarchical states of south India had their advent during this period, coeval with the Gupta state of the north. They were the Pallava state covering the southern part of Andhra and northern part of Tamil Nadu, the Kadamba state in northern Karnataka, the Ganga state in southern Karnataka, the Vakataka state in the Deccan. Besides these kingdoms there were several chieftaincies (adhiraja). A tribe called Kalabhra hailing from the northern borders seems to have occupied and ruled the central and southern parts of the Tamil country. There took place migrations of ruling clans seeking newer pastures all over south India. Most of the ruling families took pride in performing Vedic sacrifices and in upholding the Varna ideology. The statecrafts imbibed several ideas from the north, particularly from the Gupta state. The northern languages, Prakrit first and Sanskrit subsequently, became to some extent the languages of the court and the elite.


Due to the increased migrations of people, village communities in fertile tracts were becoming more complex and stratified to some extent. The two non-orthodox religions, Jainism and Buddhism, took deep roots in the society, giving birth to a large body of ethical poetry. On the other hand the orthodox Vedic-Puranic ideas also were gaining ground among the ruling people.

There was a perceptible expansion of agriculture, as more and more virgin land was brought under plough. The kings and chiefs took great interest in this process by digging irrigation tanks and by creating new settlements, especially to invite Brahmins from the north. Maritime trade with Southeast Asia and China continued as in the previous centuries.


Writing became very widespread and vattezuttu evolved from the Tamil Brahmi became a mature script for writing Tamil. In the northern borders the proto-Telugu-Kannada script was prevailing. While several anthologies were compiled by collecting bardic poems of earlier centuries, several epic poems (Silappatikaram, etc.) and ethical works were also written in this period. The Jain and Buddhist scholars authored most of this literature. In the field of dance and music, the elite started patronizing new polished styles, partly influenced by northern ideas, in the place of the folk styles. A few of the earliest rock-cut temples belong to this period. Brick temples (known as kottam, devakulam, and palli) dedicated to various deities are referred to in literary works. Brick-built Buddhist viharas of this period have been unearthed in Kavirippattinam.

Medieval I 500-900 CE


While on the one hand the states of this period expanded territorially and administratively, new states also start appearing, incorporating newly settled areas. In addition to the fair-sized monarchical states like the Pallava, the Chalukya, the Pandya, and the Chera in the fertile tracts, there were several chieftaincies occupying the intermediary and hilly zones. The political culture of these two categories differed markedly, the states imitating much of the north Indian Puranic-Sastric ideology, the chieftaincies continuing the older indigenous tradition. There was a lot of warfare among the kings and chiefs for territorial expansion and for plunder. Some of the expeditions were taken over long distances and even overseas. In the tribal belt, the old cattle raids still continued and the dead heroes were venerated with the erection of memorial stones.

An interesting development during this period is a clear territorial demarcation of the various political units with specific names like Chola-nadu, Tondai-nadu, Vanako-padi, Maza-nadu, etc. A few of them had of course crystallized even earlier. A higher level territorial unit called kottam which included within its fold several nadus is found in what is called Tondai-nadu in north Tamil Nadu. This has been considered as a territorial unit relating to pastoral communities. According to tradition there were twenty-four such kottams in Tondai-nadu. Another territorial feature which becomes clearly visible in this period is the micro-region called as either nadu or kurram, which had as its nucleus some water source, like a tank or channel, and comprised several settlements. The governments of the day were of a simple kind, with a few officials, who were primarily military leaders.


There was a clear increase of settlements, particularly in the wet zone. Some of these were established by royal charters to populate with Brahmin migrants. These latter were called as tankuru, meaning ’independent unit’, to denote their special status in a nadu. The kings and chiefs encouraged tank irrigation. Agriculture and pastoralism are the mainstay of the people. In each settlement there were a few specialist artisans and priests. Society was not yet stratified, but there was a section of people at the level of slavery.


In several respects this period laid the base for the later cultural development. The earliest rock-cut temples of Tamil Nadu had their advent in the late sixth century, while structural temples seem to have been built using bricks. Subsequently monolithic temples were created in Mamallapuram imitating the structural temples. From the 8th century, some beautiful structural temples using stone started appearing. Some of the finest specimens of painting also belong to this period. A number of freestanding hero stones erected in northern borders depict a local tradition of plastic art in secular context.

In the field of religion, new trends started appearing. Both Jainism and Buddhism had a large following. Partly as a reaction to their popularity, and partly encouraged by the patronage given to the Puranic-Sastric ideology by the ruling class, the Bhakti cults were projected by the orthodox practitioners. The Bhakti cults were a melange of ideas derived from the Vedic cult and various indigenous iconic cults; ultimately the Bhakti religion projected the two male deities, Siva and Vishnu. There took place at times acrimonious religious disputes between the Jain-Buddhist followers on the one hand and the Bhakti sections on the other hand. Sometimes kings seem to have taken sides in these disputes.

Literature flourished due to the religious competition. While the earlier epic tradition continued under the patronage of Jains and Buddhists, a new genre of devotional poetry set to music was popularized by the Bhakti scholar-saints travelling all over the country on pilgrimages. While the Vattezuttu script was used over the entire Tamil area including Kerala, the Tamil and Grantha scripts, which seem to have evolved in the Pallava court out of the southern Brahmi script, were used for administrative purposes by the Pallava rulers.

Medieval II 900-1300 CE


This was the period of big states, which grew into fairly big proportions from their original core areas. The Chola state emerging from the Kaveri delta and the Chalukya state in north Karnataka were the two biggest states that were dominating south India and were fighting with each other almost continuously to get an upper hand. Most of the tribal chieftaincies and small states were allied with either of these two big states, maintaining a precarious independence. Several semi-civilized communities lying at the peripheries were drawn into the conflicts of the bigger neighbours and were politicized in the process and drawn into the state societies.

For some decades in the 11th century the Chola state tried successfully to dominate and rule the northern part of Sri Lanka and took a big naval expedition against the maritime state of Sri Vijaya in Southeast Asia. The army of the bigger states became naturally enormous in size, with more and more recruits from the tribal areas lying beyond the core areas. The bureaucracy was also elaborated giving importance to revenue administration. There developed a clear network of three or four-tiered administrative divisions, with the mandalam at the top level and the village at the bottom. The unit called nadu or kurram (rashtra and vishaya being Sanskrit equivalents) at the middle level was the basic revenue unit.


There was a remarkable agrarian expansion due to extension of irrigation facilities and in reclamation of barren land for cultivation. Religious donation to the large number of temples that were patronized by the royalty acted as a catalyst to the reclamation. There seems to have been a demographic explosion and even remote forest and hilly areas were penetrated for creating newer settlements. Warlike communities from such areas were in turn attracted towards the plains; gradually they also became land-based communities. The land rights which were communally owned and managed earlier broke down from the 11th century onwards and private landholdings started to increase and became the norm in the 12th-13th centuries. This phenomenon, added to the accumulation of land in possession of the temples, gave rise to complex land tenures and landed intermediaries. Another perceptible change was growth of crafts and urbanization. Itinerant trade connecting widely separated areas throughout south India was a third significant economic development . A country-wide network of trade guilds, the Ayyavole Five Hundred being the premier organization, actively participated in such trade which embraced south India, Sri Lanka, and Southeast Asia.

The society became stratified to a great extent, and the caste system takes more or less a definitive shape in the later half of this period. At the same time there took place horizontal integration at different levels of society over wider areas. This supra-local integration is found first among the commercial communities, then among the landed communities, and finally among the industrial communities. The polarization of agricultural communities as against the older ones manifested in the Left hand and Right hand groupings particularly in the less fertile tracts.


In the field of religion the two Agamic religions, Saivism and Vaishnavism, became dominant. Saivism was patronized more by the Chola kings and became more or less a state religion. Temples dedicated to Siva and Vishnu received liberal donations of money, jewels, animals, and land, and thereby became powerful economic institutions. Thus they could involve in the economic activities of the local community, besides catering to its spiritual needs. The Brahmin settlements that had been spiritual leaders so far lost their importance to the temples.

Literacy was quite widespread compared to the previous period. ‘Tamil’ script replaced the Vattezuttu script throughout Tamil Nadu for writing Tamil. Both secular and religious literature flourished during the period. The greatest epic in Tamil, Kampar’s Ramayanam, was written in the 12th century. The secular literature was mostly court poetry devoted to the eulogy of the rulers. The Bhakti poems of the previous period were collected and systematized into several anthologies. Sanskrit was patronized by the elite groups for religious rituals and other ceremonial purposes.

The ‘Dravidian’ school of architecture reached its high watermark in this period. Numerous stone temples were raised all over the country. The biggest of them, namely the Great temples at Tanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram, attest to the grandeur and excellence of Chola architecture, sculpture, and painting. Dance and music were liberally patronized in temples.

Medieval III 1300-1600 CE


A major part of south India south of the Krishna river came under a single state, namely the Vijayanagara state. Thus it became really a multi-linguistic state. It has also been characterized as a sort of military state as much importance was given to the organization of the military from the very beginning. The captains of the army became in course of time rulers of localities with the title nayaka. In the beginning (1350-1500) the royal princes and commanders (dannayaka) were the pradhanis ruling over the different rajyas or provinces; from the later half of the fifteenth century the rule by nayakas themselves in more than two hundred localities (nayakkattanam) was encouraged by the kings themselves. The nayakas resembled the feudal lords of medieval Europe and had a hierarchy among themselves. A few of the bigger nayakas established almost independent rule in their respective territories from the later half of the 16th century. The local leaders who were in the fringe areas, like in Pudukkottai, were known as arasus; they ruled their localities independently, making only some nominal allegiance to the Vijayanagara king.


There took place in this period lots of migrations and demographic shifts, more than ever before, creating multi-ethnic and multi-linguistic communities in most localities. Internally the society was clearly perceived as making of two separate entities, one comprising the land-based communities and the other, industrial communities. At the lower levels all the direct producers were grouped into two potential groupings, namely Right-Hand and Left-Hand classes, whose earlier character had changed much by this time. Multiplication of subcastes is another notable feature. Though religion and temples were integrating factors, they were also causes for social conflicts due to sectarian rivalries within the ‘Hindu’ religion itself.

Economy was very much monetized. This period saw considerable development in industries, commerce, and urbanization. Industrial settlements (pettai) were created by the king and the nayakas to encourage various industries, particularly the weaving industry. A good exchange network linked interior towns with the coastal ports facilitating brisk foreign trade in textiles. This must have acted as a fillip to the European interest in Asia trade.


Elaboration of the existing temples with large pillared halls, and tall gateway towers was a striking feature in the religious architecture of this period. There survive several secular buildings too, which show much influence from Persian architecture brought in by the Muslim rulers. Another important component of architecture consisted of the large number of forts which were built from the 14th century onwards. Paintings in temple walls and palaces were made on a large scale depicting both Puranic and secular themes. Along with the elite kind of dance and music, temples and palaces also encouraged varieties of folk theatre and music. Professional acrobats and jugglers provided popular entertainment. Both Saivism and Vaishnavism became more and more dominated by sectarian rivalries, and philosophic disputes. Several commentaries were written in a hybrid language mixed with Sanskrit and Tamil on the simple Bhakti poems to introduce Vedantic ideas at a popular level. At the same time the prabandha genre of literature was written in simple and elegant Tamil using popular metres to cater to a wider audience.